High Quality for D2 Tool Steel | 1.2379 | X153CrMo12 | SKD11 in Romania
1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications Country USA German Japan Standard ASTM A681 DIN EN ISO 4957 JIS G4404 Grades D2 1.2379/X153CrMo12 SKD11 2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition ASTM A681 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo D2 1.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.6 11 13 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.2 DIN ISO 4957 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo 1.2379/X153CrMo12 1.45 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.15 1.6 11 13 0.7 1 0.7 1 JIS G4404 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo SKD11 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.4 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 3. AISI Grade...
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1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications
|Standard||ASTM A681||DIN EN ISO 4957||JIS G4404|
2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo|
3. AISI Grade D2 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||769||769|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||62||62|
|Izod impact unnotched||77.0 J||56.8 ft-lb|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30457 ksi|
|Thermal expansion||10.4 x 10-6/ºC||20-100||
4. AISI/ASTM A681 D2 Grade Steel Forging
Heating for forging of AISI D2 tool steel should
be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at 1850°-1950°F and reheat as often
as necessary, stopping work when the temperature drops below 1700°F(926℃). After D2
die steel forging, cool slowly in lime, mica, dry ashes or furnace. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.
5. D2 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
ASTM D2 steels alloy should be preheated very slowly to 815oC (1500oF) and then temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850oF). They are then held at 1010oC (1850oF) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air quenched).
Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898oC (1600 to 1650oF) followed by slow furnace cooling at 4.4oC (40oF) per hour or less.after which cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
When desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat D2 grade steel slowly to 1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain Relieving).
Preheat Prior To Hardening
Preheat slowly to 1350°-1450°F and hold at this temperature until grade steel D2 material is uniformly heated.
After thorough preheating, heat to 1800°-1850°F. Hold the work piece at the hardening temperature until it is completely and uniformly heated.
AISI D2 steel tool material is an air hardening steel and will develop hardness on cooling in still air. To avoid scaling and prevent decarburization of the work piece surface, controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are recommended. If these furnaces are not available, pack hardening, salt baths or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection in the hardening process. Parts should be allowed to cool to 150F, or to where they can be held in the bare hand, and then temper immediately.
The tempering temperature on material D2 steel may be varied according to the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204oC (400oF) for achieving Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537oC (1000oF) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.
6. D2 Tool Steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long run tooling applications, where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies.
Some main applications for D2 tool steel are as below:
Blanking Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Forming Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Drawing Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Burnishing Tools, Gauges, Knurls, Wear Parts.
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This video shows some experiments I did do learn the sources of noise coming from my typical portable generator (genset), and to learn some methods by which the sources of noise could be attenuated.
The video shows only the experiments, NOT a finished method or recommendation.
I put the genset in a garage temporarily to see whether, and how much, high frequency attenuation I could realize from such a large enclosure. This is not an endorsement of putting a genset permanently in a garage, whether attached or detached from a house (a detached shed might be used instead, for just one example).
A great many viewers have added their thoughts, experiences, wisdom and concerns. These were most welcome.
Unfortunately, a much greater number of self-proclaimed experts, and outright idiots, most of them offering no information of their own, have taken to deluging me with slanderous comments on a daily basis, and I have had enough of it. Hence, the comments have been disabled for this video.
In this video of the Longevity Learning Lab, Scott shoes off a method for determining which metal you are working with by a spar test.
For more useful information, please go to www.freeweldingforum.com and register to discuss welding tips and tricks.