Wholesale 100% Original D2 Tool Steel | 1.2379 | X153CrMo12 | SKD11 in Curacao
1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications Country USA German Japan Standard ASTM A681 DIN EN ISO 4957 JIS G4404 Grades D2 1.2379/X153CrMo12 SKD11 2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition ASTM A681 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo D2 1.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.6 11 13 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.2 DIN ISO 4957 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo 1.2379/X153CrMo12 1.45 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.15 1.6 11 13 0.7 1 0.7 1 JIS G4404 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo SKD11 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.4 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 3. AISI Grade...
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1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications
|Standard||ASTM A681||DIN EN ISO 4957||JIS G4404|
2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo|
3. AISI Grade D2 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||769||769|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||62||62|
|Izod impact unnotched||77.0 J||56.8 ft-lb|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30457 ksi|
|Thermal expansion||10.4 x 10-6/ºC||20-100||
4. AISI/ASTM A681 D2 Grade Steel Forging
Heating for forging of AISI D2 tool steel should
be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at 1850°-1950°F and reheat as often
as necessary, stopping work when the temperature drops below 1700°F(926℃). After D2
die steel forging, cool slowly in lime, mica, dry ashes or furnace. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.
5. D2 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
ASTM D2 steels alloy should be preheated very slowly to 815oC (1500oF) and then temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850oF). They are then held at 1010oC (1850oF) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air quenched).
Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898oC (1600 to 1650oF) followed by slow furnace cooling at 4.4oC (40oF) per hour or less.after which cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
When desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat D2 grade steel slowly to 1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain Relieving).
Preheat Prior To Hardening
Preheat slowly to 1350°-1450°F and hold at this temperature until grade steel D2 material is uniformly heated.
After thorough preheating, heat to 1800°-1850°F. Hold the work piece at the hardening temperature until it is completely and uniformly heated.
AISI D2 steel tool material is an air hardening steel and will develop hardness on cooling in still air. To avoid scaling and prevent decarburization of the work piece surface, controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are recommended. If these furnaces are not available, pack hardening, salt baths or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection in the hardening process. Parts should be allowed to cool to 150F, or to where they can be held in the bare hand, and then temper immediately.
The tempering temperature on material D2 steel may be varied according to the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204oC (400oF) for achieving Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537oC (1000oF) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.
6. D2 Tool Steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long run tooling applications, where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies.
Some main applications for D2 tool steel are as below:
Blanking Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Forming Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Drawing Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Burnishing Tools, Gauges, Knurls, Wear Parts.
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JONEJA BRIGHT STEELS PVT LTD. (WE MAKE STEEL PERFORM BETTER)
Technology tends to move toward the bigger and better, cramming more and more features into a given product. But sometimes, less is more.
Robots are often called on to do the jobs that are too dirty or dangerous for humans, such as examining the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after it experienced multiple meltdowns in the wake of a tsunami. The most advanced robots, however, were stymied by the same problems as their human counterparts; the massive amounts of radiation inside would make it a one-way trip. Smaller, simpler robots are now being developed with such applications in mind.
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Engineering and Applied Science have now taken this effort a step forward, debuting the world’s smallest self-powered controllable flying vehicle: Piccolissimo.
Italian for “tiniest,” Piccolissimo is the brain child of Matt Piccoli, a graduate student in professor Mark Yim’s ModLab. The robot comes in two sizes; the smaller weighs less than 2.5 grams and is about the width of a quarter, while the larger, steerable version is about 2 grams heavier and a centimeter wider.
The string of adjectives qualifying Piccolissimo as the “smallest” is necessary due to the concerted effort in miniaturizing flying robots. Harvard’s RoboBee, for example, is a few millimeters smaller than the steerable Piccolissimo, but is tethered to a terrestrial power source, limiting its range of motion.
Enabling directional control on such a tiny frame is an equally big challenge, but one that the ModLab is particularly equipped to address. One of the lab’s specialties is “underactuated” robots, ones that achieve the greatest range of motion with the fewest motors possible.