Special Design for M2 Tool Steel | 1.3343 | HS-6-5-2C| SKH51 in Uzbekistan
AISI M2 Tool Steel is molybdenum based high-speed steel in tungsten–molybdenum series. HSS grade steel M2 is a medium alloyed high speed steel which has good machinability. The H-SS M2 chemical composition gives a good combination of well-balanced toughness, wear resistance and red hardness properties. Widely used for cutting tools such as twist drills, taps, milling cutters, saws, knives etc. Also commonly used in cold work punches and dies and cutting applications involving high speed...
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is a medium alloyed high speed steel which has good machinability. The
H-SS M2 chemical composition gives a good combination of well-balanced
toughness, wear resistance and red hardness properties. Widely used for
cutting tools such as twist drills, taps, milling cutters, saws, knives
etc. Also commonly used in cold work punches and dies and cutting
applications involving high speed and light cuts.
Grade M2 High Speed Steel is by far the most popular high speed steel replacing high speed steel gradein most applications because of its superior properties and relative economy.
1. Common M2 Tool Steel Related Specifications and Equivalents
2. ASTM M2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition Properties
|M2 regular C||0.78||0.88||0.15||0.40||0.03||0.03||0.20||0.45||3.75||4.50||1.75||2.20||4.50||5.50||5.50||6.75|
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo||W|
3. AISI HSS M2 Tool Steel Mechanical Properties
Physical Properties of HSS M2 Material
|Density||0.294 lb/in3 (8138 kg/m3)|
|Modulus of Elasticity||0.294 lb/in3 (8138 kg/m3)|
|Thermal conductivity||24 Btu/ft/hr/°F 41.5 W/m/°K|
|Machinability||65% of a 1% carbon steel|
AISI M2 Tool Steels Properties Mechanical
|Hardness, Rockwell C (tempered at 1150°F, quenched at 2200°F)||62||62|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (as hardened, quenched at 2200°F)||65||65|
|Compressive yield strength (when tempered at 300°F)||3250 MPa||471000 psi|
|Izod impact unnotched (when tempered at 300°F)||67 J||49.4 ft-lb|
|Abrasion (loss in mm3, as-hardened; ASTM G65)||25.8||25.8|
|Abrasion (loss in mm3, tempered at 1275°F; ASTM G65)||77.7||77.7|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30458 ksi|
M2 Steels Thermal Properties
|CTE, linear (@20.0 – 100°C/ 68.0 – 212°F)||10 μm/m°C||5.56 μin/in°F|
|CTE, linear (@20.0 – 500°C/68.0 – 932°F)||12.2 μm/m°C||6.78 μin/in°F|
|CTE, linear (@20.0 – 850°C/68.0 – 1560°F)||12.6 μm/m°C||7 μin/in°F|
4. Forging of AISI M2 High Speed Steel
heat M2 HSS steel slowly and uniformly to 850-900°C. The heat should
then be increased more quickly to the forging temperature of
1050-1150°C. If during the forging
the temperature of the M2 high speed tool steel material drops below
880-900°C, re-heating will be necessary. Cool the M2 steel component
very slowly after forging.
5. Heat Treatment of M2 Steel HSS
to 1600° F, soak thoroughly at heat. Furnace cool 25° F per hour to
900° F, air cool to room temperature. Approximate annealed hardness 241
Stress Relief of Unhardened Material: Heat slowly
to 1200 to 1250° F. Soak for two hours per inch of thickness at heat.
Slow cool (furnace cool if possible) to room temperature.
Preheat: Heat slowly to 1550° F, soak thoroughly, heat to 1850° F, soak thoroughly.
time in the furnace varies from a few minutes to a 15 minutes,
depending tool size, heat capacity of the furnace, and the size of the
charge. – Heat to 2150 to 2200° F for max. toughness and minimum
distortion. – Heat to 2250 to 2275° F for max. hardness and abrasion
hardness, oil quench to 150-200° F. Air quench to 150° F. When quenching
in hot salt maintain the quench just above the Ms temperature. After
equalizing withdraw parts from the hot salt and air cooled to 150° F.
temper is mandatory, three tempers are sometimes preferred. Soak for 2
hours per inch of thickness. Air cool to room temperature between
tempers. The best tempering range for hardness, strength and toughness
is 1000 to 1050° F.
|Temper° F||Rockwell “C”||Temper° F||Rockwell “C”|
6. Machinability of AISI M2 Tool Steel H-SS
of HSS M2 tool steels can be carried out using grinding methods.
However, they have poor grinding capability and hence they are regarded
as “medium” machinability tool steel under annealed conditions. The
machinability of these tool steels M2 is only 50% of that of the easily
machinable W group or water hardening tool steels.
7. M2 Tool Steel Applications
The main use of high-speed steels continues to be in the manufacture of various cutting tools.
applications for M2 high speed steel are twist drills, reamers,
broaching tools, taps, milling tools, metal saws. M2 is suitable for
cold forming tools such as extrusion rams and dies, also widely used in
all kinds of cutting tools, knife and punches and die applications,
plastic moulds with elevated wear resistance and screws.
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Geologists and geophysicists have agreed on the existence of a “prospect”, a potential field. In order to find out if hydrocarbons are indeed trapped in the reservoir rock, we must drill to hit them. Bearing in mind the knowledge acquired about the substratum and the topography of the land, the best position for the installation of the drilling equipment is determined. Generally it is vertically above the point of maximum thickness of the geological layer suspected of containing hydrocarbons. The drillers then make a hole in conditions that are sometimes difficult.
Of small diameter (from 20 to 50 cm) this hole will generally go down to a depth of between 2000 and 4000 meters. Exceptionally, certain wells exceed 6000 m. One of them has even exceeded 11 000 m! Certain fields can be buried at a depth equivalent to the height of 12 Eiffel Towers … The derrick is the visible part of the drilling rig. It is a metal tower several tens of meters high. It is used to vertically introduce the drill strings down the hole. These drill strings are made up of metallic tubes screwed end to end. They transmit a rotating movement (rotary drilling) to the drilling tool (the drill bit) and help circulate a liquid called “mud” (because of its appearance) down to the bottom of the well.
The drilling rig works like an enormous electric hand-drill of which the derrick would be the body, the drill strings the drive and the drilling tool the drill bit. The most usual tool is an assembly of three cones — from which comes the name “tri cone” — in very hard steel, which crushes the rock. Sometimes when the rock being drilled is very resistant, a single- block tool encrusted with diamonds is used. This wears down the rock by abrasion. Through the drill pipes, at the extremity of which the drill bit rotates, a special mud is injected, which the mud engineer prepares and controls. This mud cools the drill bit and consolidates the sides of the borehole. Moreover it avoids a gushing of oil, gas or water from the layer being drilled, by equilibrating the pressure.
Finally, the mud cleans the bottom of the well. As it makes its way along the pipes, it carries the rock fragments (cuttings) to the surface. The geologist examines these cuttings to discover the characteristics of the rocks being drilled and to detect eventual shows of hydrocarbons. The cuttings, fragments of rock crushed by the drill bit, are brought back up to the surface by the mud. To obtain information on the characteristics of the rock being drilled, a core sample is taken. The drill bit is replaced by a hollow tool called a core sampler, which extracts a cylindrical sample of several meters of rock. This core supplies data on the nature of the rock, the inclination of the layers, the structure, permeability, porosity, fluid content and the fossils present. After having drilled a few hundred of meters, the explorers and drillers undertake measurements down the hole called loggings, by lowering electronic tools into the well to measure the physical parameters of the rock being drilled.
These measures validate, or invalidate, or make more precise the hypotheses put forward earlier about the rocks and the fluids that they contain. The log engineer is responsible for the analysis of the results of the various loggings. The sides of the well are then reinforced by steel tubes screwed end to end. These tubes (called casings) are cemented into the ground. They isolate the various layers encountered. When hydrocarbons are found, and if the pressure is sufficient to allow them come to the surface naturally, the drillers do a flow check. The oil is allowed to come to the surface during several hours or several days through a calibrated hole.
The quantity recovered is measured, as are the changes in pressure at the bottom of the well. In this way, a little more knowledge is gained about the probable productivity of the field. If the field seems promising, the exploration team ends the first discovery well and goes on to drill a second, even several others, several hundred or thousand meters further away. In this way, the exploration team is able to refine its knowledge about the characteristics of the field. The decision to stop drilling is made only when all these appraisal wells have provided sufficient information either to give up the exploration or to envisage future production.
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