OEM/ODM Manufacturer ASTM 52100 Bearing Steel | 1.3505 | 100Cr6 | SUJ2 | EN31 Factory from Orlando
ASTM A295 is specification which covers 52100 high carbon bearing quality steelto be used in the manufacture of anti-friction bearings. And 52100 bearing steel is the most common steel grade in ASTM A295 standard for high-carbon anti-friction bearing steel. What is 52100 bearing steel? AISI/ASTM 52100 bearing steel is a high carbon, chromium containing low alloysteel that is through hardening and noted in particular for use asbearings. 52100 bearing steel is one kind of special steel with ...
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is specification which covers 52100 high carbon bearing quality steel
to be used in the manufacture of anti-friction bearings. And is the most common steel grade in ASTM A295 standard for high-carbon anti-friction bearing steel.
What is 52100 bearing steel?
52100 bearing steel is a high carbon, chromium containing low alloy
steel that is through hardening and noted in particular for use as
52100 bearing steel is one kind of special steel with features of
high wear resistance and rolling fatigue strength. High-carbon chromium
bearing steel, engineering steel and some types of stainless steel and
heat resistant steel are used as materials of bearings and for other
Advantages of Chrome Bearing Steel 52100:
Superior hardness, 60-67 on Rockwell hardness scale (Rc) at room temperature
High carbon chrome alloy steel
Operates continually at temperatures up to 120°C
Used to produce precision ball bearings and roller bearings
Long working life
1. Relevant Steel Specification of ASTM 52100 Bearing Steel
|Standard||ASTM A295||DIN 17230|
2. Chemical Composition of 52100 Bearing Steel and Equivalents
3. Mechanical Properties of ASTM A295 52100 Bearing Steel
|Bulk modulus (typical for steel)||140 GPa||20300 ksi|
|Shear modulus (typical for steel)||80 GPa||11600 ksi|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30458 ksi|
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||875||875|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in oil from 150°C tempered)||62||62|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in water from 150°C tempered)||64||64|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in oil)||64||64|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in water)||66||66|
|Hardness, Vickers (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||848||848|
|Machinability (spheroidized annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212 steel)||40||40|
52100 Steel Physical Properties
|Density||7.81 g/cm3||0.282 lb/in³|
52100 Alloy Steel Thermal Properties
|Thermal expansion co-efficient (@ 23-280°C/73.4- 36°F, annealed)||11.9 µm/m°C||6.61 µin/in°F|
|Thermal conductivity (typical steel)||46.6 W/mK||323 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
4. Forging of A295 52100 Bearing Steel
52100 alloy steel is forged at 927 to 1205°C, and should not be forged
below 925ºC. A post-forge equalization treatment is recommended at 745ºC
for 4-6 hours followed by air cooling for SAE/AISI 52100 steel.
6. Heat Treatment for ASTM 52100 Bearing Steel
52100 alloy bearing steel is heated at 816°C followed by quenching in
oil. Before performing this process, it is subjected to normalizing heat
treatment at 872°C followed by slowly cooling in order to reduce the
AISI 52100 bearing steels alloy can be hot worked at 205 to 538°C.
AISI 52100 bearing steel can be cold worked using conventional techniques in the annealed or normalized conditions.
For spheroidize anneale, the following isothermal anneal is recommended:
1500ºF (815ºC) for 3 hours
1350ºF (735ºC) for 4 hours
1250ºF (675ºC) for 3 hours
Slow cool to 1000ºF (540ºC) then air cool.
AISI 52100 alloy bearing steel could be hardened by quenching in water from 801-829 degree or quench in oil from 816-842 degree.
Temper to desired hardness as indicated by tempering curves after water or oil quench.
5. Applications of 52100 Bearing Steel
steel 52100 grade bearing steel is mainly used for the manufacture of
aircraft bearings and other highly stressed parts. This steel grade
52100 steel is preferably vacuum arc re-melted to give optimum
Typical applications: Bearing Manufacture, CV joints, ball screws, gauges, knife etc.
Geologists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs. The “classic” method includes making an underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures under the ground. However, “passive” methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also known.
The oil well is created by drilling a long hole into the earth with an oil rig. A steel pipe (casing) is placed in the hole, to provide structural integrity to the newly drilled well bore. Holes are then made in the base of the well to enable oil to pass into the bore.Finally a collection of valves called a “Christmas Tree” is fitted to the top, the valves regulate pressures and control flow.
During the primary recovery stage, reservoir drive comes from a number of natural mechanisms. These include: natural water displacing oil downward into the well, expansion of the natural gas at the top of the reservoir, expansion of gas initially dissolved in the crude oil, and gravity drainage resulting from the movement of oil within the reservoir from the upper to the lower parts where the wells are located. Recovery factor during the primary recovery stage is typically 5-15%.
While the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient to force the oil to the surface, all that is necessary is to place a complex arrangement of valves (the Christmas tree) on the well head to connect the well to a pipeline network for storage and processing. Sometimes pumps, such as beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), are used to bring the oil to the surface; these are known as artificial lift mechanisms.
Over the lifetime of the well the pressure will fall, and at some point there will be insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface. After natural reservoir drive diminishes, secondary recovery methods are applied. They rely on the supply of external energy into the reservoir in the form of injecting fluids to increase reservoir pressure, hence replacing or increasing the natural reservoir drive with an artificial drive. Secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir’s pressure by water injection, natural gas reinjection and gas lift, which injects air, carbon dioxide or some other gas into the bottom of an active well, reducing the overall density of fluid in the wellbore. Typical recovery factor from water-flood operations is about 30%, depending on the properties of oil and the characteristics of the reservoir rock. On average, the recovery factor after primary and secondary oil recovery operations is between 35 and 45%.
The amount of oil that is recoverable is determined by a number of factors including the permeability of the rocks, the strength of natural drives (the gas present, pressure from adjacent water or gravity), and the viscosity of the oil. When the reservoir rocks are “tight” such as shale, oil generally cannot flow through but when they are permeable such as in sandstone, oil flows freely. The flow of oil is often helped by natural pressures surrounding the reservoir rocks including natural gas that may be dissolved in the oil (Gas oil ratio), natural gas present above the oil, water below the oil and the strength of gravity. Oils tend to span a large range of viscosity from liquids as light as gasoline to heavy as tar. The lightest forms tend to result in higher extraction rates.
Petroleum engineering is the discipline responsible for evaluating which well locations and recovery mechanisms are appropriate for a reservoir and for estimating recovery rates and oil reserves prior to actual extraction.
Induction Heating Aspect 6: Cryogenic Scenario Hardening
In this video I show you how to cryogenically scenario harden your low carbon steel parts. What you conclude up with is a content that has a ductile inner core with a really hard outer shell. Areas that require effect resistance as nicely as abrasion resistance are great candidates for scenario hardening.
Gears, Firing pins, Motor Camshafts, Lock Shackles, Safety Fasteners, and Self Drilling Screws are all frequently scenario
hardened. The method of scenario hardening used in the video is also recognized as carburizing with a cryogenic treatment. Liquid nitrogen is normally used but I used a isopropyl alcohol dry ice tub. Liquid nitrogen would supply even additional added benefits by converting even additional retained austenite to martensite. Also, if you do not intellect the darkness of the part immediately after the hardening course of action, it truly is most effective not to polish it for even additional rust security.
This course of action ought to largely be used with low carbon and gentle steels.
Hyperlinks to Tools Utilised in the Video clip:
Hardness Screening Data files
Circuit Cooling Spray:
Locking Pliers With Epoxy Coating for Welding
Meanwell RSP-a thousand-48 Ability Source
Litz Wire for Personalized Induction Coils
Temperature Meter 2000F(1300C)
Ability Meter 100V 50A
Solid Iron Mini Skillet
Aerosol Hearth Extinguisher
Cherry Purple Scenario Hardening Compound
See my instructables account for stage by stage guides to some of my assignments: http://www.instructables.com/member/Proto+G/
Remember to aid my channel to aid me make additional movies: http://patreon.com/ProtoG