Factory wholesale price for D2 Tool Steel | 1.2379 | X153CrMo12 | SKD11 Factory from Panama
1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications Country USA German Japan Standard ASTM A681 DIN EN ISO 4957 JIS G4404 Grades D2 1.2379/X153CrMo12 SKD11 2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition ASTM A681 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo D2 1.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.6 11 13 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.2 DIN ISO 4957 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo 1.2379/X153CrMo12 1.45 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.15 1.6 11 13 0.7 1 0.7 1 JIS G4404 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo SKD11 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.4 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 3. AISI Grade...
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1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications
|Standard||ASTM A681||DIN EN ISO 4957||JIS G4404|
2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo|
3. AISI Grade D2 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||769||769|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||62||62|
|Izod impact unnotched||77.0 J||56.8 ft-lb|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30457 ksi|
|Thermal expansion||10.4 x 10-6/ºC||20-100||
4. AISI/ASTM A681 D2 Grade Steel Forging
Heating for forging of AISI D2 tool steel should
be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at 1850°-1950°F and reheat as often
as necessary, stopping work when the temperature drops below 1700°F(926℃). After D2
die steel forging, cool slowly in lime, mica, dry ashes or furnace. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.
5. D2 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
ASTM D2 steels alloy should be preheated very slowly to 815oC (1500oF) and then temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850oF). They are then held at 1010oC (1850oF) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air quenched).
Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898oC (1600 to 1650oF) followed by slow furnace cooling at 4.4oC (40oF) per hour or less.after which cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
When desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat D2 grade steel slowly to 1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain Relieving).
Preheat Prior To Hardening
Preheat slowly to 1350°-1450°F and hold at this temperature until grade steel D2 material is uniformly heated.
After thorough preheating, heat to 1800°-1850°F. Hold the work piece at the hardening temperature until it is completely and uniformly heated.
AISI D2 steel tool material is an air hardening steel and will develop hardness on cooling in still air. To avoid scaling and prevent decarburization of the work piece surface, controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are recommended. If these furnaces are not available, pack hardening, salt baths or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection in the hardening process. Parts should be allowed to cool to 150F, or to where they can be held in the bare hand, and then temper immediately.
The tempering temperature on material D2 steel may be varied according to the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204oC (400oF) for achieving Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537oC (1000oF) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.
6. D2 Tool Steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long run tooling applications, where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies.
Some main applications for D2 tool steel are as below:
Blanking Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Forming Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Drawing Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Burnishing Tools, Gauges, Knurls, Wear Parts.
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The Young in Heart (1938) (Excerpts)
Director: Richard Wallace
Production Company: Selznick International Pictures
When the first real “Car of the Future” appeared to the public?
I guess it happened in a 1938 movie called “The young ln Heart”. The name of the car in the film is “Flying Wombat” but in the reality this streamlined black beast is a Phantom Corsair, a six-passenger coupe that was designed by Rust Heinz, a member of the H. J. Heinz family, and Maurice Schwartz of the Pasadena, California based Bohman & Schwartz coachbuilding company. Heinz planned to put the Phantom Corsair, which cost approximately $24,000 to produce in 1938 (approximately $400,000 in 2008 dollars) into limited production at an estimated selling price of $12,500. However, Heinz’s death, shortly after the car was completed, ended those plans. The automobile was featured as the “Flying Wombat” in the David O. Selznick film The Young in Heart (1938) starring Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Paulette Goddard, Janet Gaynor, and Billie Burke. Heinz and his car were also featured in a segment of the Popular Science film series in 1938.
The other “Flying Wombats” we see in the showroom sequences were just static copies of the car, probably made of wax.
The unique 1938 Phantom Corsair now resides in the National Automobile Museum (The Harrah Collection) in Reno, Nevada.
With a height of only 147 cm (58 in.), the steel and aluminum body had no running boards, fenders or door handles. Instead, the doors could be opened using buttons located on the outside and on the instrument panel. To match the advanced design, Heinz chose the most advanced chassis available in the United States at that time to fit the body onto, the Cord 810. The V8 engine equipped Cord also featured front wheel drive and an electrically operated four-speed gearbox, as well as a fully independent suspension and adjustable shock absorbers. To accommodate the large body, various changes were carried through on the chassis. The car’s lower frame was made of chromoly steel and the upper frame was constructed of electrically welded aviation steel tubing. Power for the 2-ton / 4500 lb. (2000 kg) Phantom Corsair came from a modified Cord 810 Lycoming 8-cylinder unit, supercharged by Andy Granatelli to produce about 190 hp. The aerodynamic body enabled the car to reach speeds of up to 115 miles per hour (185 km/h), not bad at all for 1938.
Anyway, in my opinion, the production of the “Cars of the Future” (intended as a whole brand new concept of car making) started in 1949, creating an overall concept of Automobile that lasted on the market until the early 70ies.
Here we celebrate the 70th anniversary of the Phantom Corsair with some good quality excerpts from “The Young ln Heart”, with part of the shots regarding this outstanding and completely forgotten automobile.
Editing by ROMANO-ARCHIVES.
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When a work-obsessed real-estate mogul (Kevin Spacey) suffers a magical accident that leaves him trapped inside the body of his 11-year-old daughter’s cat, he realizes he has to put family first if he ever hopes to regain his human form.