Chinese Professional Stainless Steel in Greece
Stainless steels generally contain between 10-20%chromium as the main alloying element and are valued for high corrosionresistance. With over 11% chromium, steel is about 200 times moreresistant to corrosion than mild steel. These steels can be divided into three groups based on their crystalline structure: Austenitic: Austenitic steels are non-magnetic and non heat-treatable, andgenerally contain 18% chromium, 8% nickel and less than 0.8% carbon. Austenitic steels form the largest po...
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Stainless steels generally contain between 10-20%
chromium as the main alloying element and are valued for high corrosion
resistance. With over 11% chromium, steel is about 200 times more
resistant to corrosion than mild steel. These steels can be divided into
three groups based on their crystalline structure:
Austenitic steels are non-magnetic and non heat-treatable, and
generally contain 18% chromium, 8% nickel and less than 0.8% carbon. Austenitic steels
form the largest portion of the global stainless steel market and are
often used in food processing equipment, kitchen utensils and piping.
Ferritic: Ferritic steels contain trace amounts of nickel, 12-17% chromium, less than 0.1% carbon, along with other alloying elements, such as molybdenum, aluminum or titanium. These magnetic steels cannot be hardened with heat treatment, but can be strengthened by cold working.
Martensitic steels contain 11-17% chromium, less than 0.4% nickel and
up to 1.2% carbon. These magnetic and heat-treatable steels are used in
knives, cutting tools, as well as dental and surgical equipment.
Researchers at NC State have developed a new method to create microfluidic channels and microvasculature in polymers by 3D printing liquid metal ‘fugitive inks’. The liquid metal – an alloy of gallium – can be 3D printed onto polymer substrates and encapsulated with more polymer. The metal can be printed due to the formation of a thin surface oxide on its surface, which stabilizes its shape. Once encapsulated in polymer, this oxide layer can be removed using several techniques, causing the metal to retract from the encasing material. This retraction leaves behind empty microchannels, which can then be used for microfluidics and other applications. One example is to pattern microvasculature into materials in a way that mimics the vasculature of the human body. Although other strategies exist to print fugitive inks, the present work is distinguished by its simplicity and rapid, room temperature processing.
The paper, “3D printing of liquid metals as fugitive inks for fabrication of 3D microfluidic channels” is published online in the journal Lab on a Chip. For more information, visit the website of the journal.
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Composition of Alloys
Alloy steel contains Fe, C and one or more other metals. Generally, the percentage of the alloying metal (the metal other than iron) is less than 2. The actual alloying metal can be varied, the choice depending on the availability and cost of metals. Such alloying increases the hardness and improves the micro-structure.
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