Best quality and factory D2 Tool Steel | 1.2379 | X153CrMo12 | SKD11 Manufacturer in Brunei
1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications Country USA German Japan Standard ASTM A681 DIN EN ISO 4957 JIS G4404 Grades D2 1.2379/X153CrMo12 SKD11 2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition ASTM A681 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo D2 1.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.6 11 13 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.2 DIN ISO 4957 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo 1.2379/X153CrMo12 1.45 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.15 1.6 11 13 0.7 1 0.7 1 JIS G4404 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo SKD11 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.4 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 3. AISI Grade...
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1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications
|Standard||ASTM A681||DIN EN ISO 4957||JIS G4404|
2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo|
3. AISI Grade D2 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||769||769|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||62||62|
|Izod impact unnotched||77.0 J||56.8 ft-lb|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30457 ksi|
|Thermal expansion||10.4 x 10-6/ºC||20-100||
4. AISI/ASTM A681 D2 Grade Steel Forging
Heating for forging of AISI D2 tool steel should
be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at 1850°-1950°F and reheat as often
as necessary, stopping work when the temperature drops below 1700°F(926℃). After D2
die steel forging, cool slowly in lime, mica, dry ashes or furnace. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.
5. D2 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
ASTM D2 steels alloy should be preheated very slowly to 815oC (1500oF) and then temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850oF). They are then held at 1010oC (1850oF) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air quenched).
Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898oC (1600 to 1650oF) followed by slow furnace cooling at 4.4oC (40oF) per hour or less.after which cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
When desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat D2 grade steel slowly to 1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain Relieving).
Preheat Prior To Hardening
Preheat slowly to 1350°-1450°F and hold at this temperature until grade steel D2 material is uniformly heated.
After thorough preheating, heat to 1800°-1850°F. Hold the work piece at the hardening temperature until it is completely and uniformly heated.
AISI D2 steel tool material is an air hardening steel and will develop hardness on cooling in still air. To avoid scaling and prevent decarburization of the work piece surface, controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are recommended. If these furnaces are not available, pack hardening, salt baths or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection in the hardening process. Parts should be allowed to cool to 150F, or to where they can be held in the bare hand, and then temper immediately.
The tempering temperature on material D2 steel may be varied according to the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204oC (400oF) for achieving Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537oC (1000oF) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.
6. D2 Tool Steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long run tooling applications, where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies.
Some main applications for D2 tool steel are as below:
Blanking Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Forming Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Drawing Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Burnishing Tools, Gauges, Knurls, Wear Parts.
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Tel: (+91 22) 22041340 / 41 / 42
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Carbon Steel Pipe Production.
Carbon Steel Pipe
The term carbon steel pipe is quite broad in scope and can be used to describe a wide range of metal tubular goods whose main alloying element is carbon. Although many of the same manufacturing principles apply to both carbon steel pipe and various similar alloy tubular goods, the focus of this narrative will be on the manufacturing process of mild carbon steel pipe goods commonly used for oil and gas as well as water transmission, structural applications, general purpose casing, piling, and mechanical components.
Carbon steel pipe starts out by arriving at the pipe mill in the form of either a billet (basically a large solid steel bar) or a coil (imagine a roll of toilet paper made out of steel). Depending on the manufacturing method used by the mill, these billets or coils will be processed to yield the finished end product. We will examine the various manufacturing methods used to make carbon steel pipe, but first let’s look at how the carbon steel got here in the first place.
SEAMLESS CARBON STEEL PIPE
Seamless carbon steel pipe has, as its name implies, no longitudinal weld seam. It is, in essence, one solid homogeneous piece of steel. A solid billet is simply heated and then stretched over a series of mandrels until the pipe has achieved its desired diameter and wall thickness. Typically seamless carbon steel pipe fourteen inches and greater in diameter are rolled from shells which expand the diameter and reduce the wall until the desired dimensions are achieved. Sizes smaller than fourteen inches in diameter are typically stretch reduced whereby the diameter is gradually reduced and the wall relatively increased via a series of rolls. There is also a cold forming process for seamless pipe production, but such manufacturing processes are typically reserved for different alloys. Being that there is no seam, seamless carbon steel pipe is typically used in high pressure applications. Common seamless specs include; API5LB, A106, A333
DOUBLE SUBMERGED ARC WELD (DSAW)
The double submerged arc weld (DSAW) process is similar to that of the ERW process in that coils of carbon steel are unrolled in a continuous ribbon. As the DSAW method of manufacturing is typically used for larger diameter pipe, the method of roll forming the skelp is similar to but not exactly like that of ERW. DSAW pipe is typically either pyramid rolled (three angled OD rolls in the shape of a pyramid form the pipe) or rolled using the U-O-E process (skelp is first subject to a “U” shaped press, followed by a “O” shaped press). The most prominent difference between ERW and DSAW carbon steel pipe is the longitudinal weld. The DSAW arc weld is submerged in a flux media to keep the weld from being exposed to ambient contaminants. Also, both the OD and the ID of the pipe is welded, typically at separate times creating a situation where one weld consumes the other creating a higher quality weld. DSAW carbon steel pipe is easily distinguishable due to its prominent and consistent ID and OD weld seam. Common DSAW specs include; API5l, A252, and A139.
The most easily distinguishable manufacturing method for carbon steel pipe is spiral weld. In this process the weld is created in the exact same manner as that of DSAW, only the weld seam takes on a helical or spiral appearance due to the way the skelp is rolled to form. Just as in the case with the ERW and DSAW process, a continuous ribbon of skelp is leveled and sent through a series of rolls to form. In the case of the spiral weld process a simple three roll bend is typical and thus makes for faster, more efficient, and less costly manufacturing process. The spiral weld process also allows the mill to roll a much wider range of sizes than DSAW or ERW mills. Also, due to its axial symmetry, spiral weld carbon steel pipe has an inherent ability to maintain straightness. Common spiral weld specs include; API5LB and A252.