80% OFF Price For L6 Tool Steel | 1.2714 | 55NiCrMoV7 | SKT4 | BH224/5 Factory for Iran
In ASTM A681 standard, L6 steel grade is in L-type for special purpose tool steels. AISI L6 tool steel is in the general class of alloy, oil-hardening tool steel that is characterized by good toughness. ASTM L6 tool steel is suitable for use as tools, dies, and machine parts, which require a good combination of hardness and toughness. Due to its lower carbon content and relatively high nickel content, L6 tool steel has slightly better shock-resistance than more highly alloyed types and shoul...
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is in the general class of alloy, oil-hardening tool steel that is
characterized by good toughness. ASTM L6 tool steel is suitable for use
as tools, dies, and machine parts, which require a good combination of
hardness and toughness.
Due to its lower carbon content and
relatively high nickel content, L6 tool steel has slightly better
shock-resistance than more highly alloyed types and should be used where
some wear-resistance can be sacrificed for increased toughness.
1. Relevant Steel Specification of L6 Tool Steel
2. AISI L6 Steel Chemical Composition and Steel Equivalents
|L6/T61206||0.65||0.75||0.25||0.80||0.03||0.03||0.10||0.50||0.60||1.20||. . .||. . .||. . .||0.50||1.25||2.00|
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo||Ni|
|BH224/5||0.49||0.57||0.70||1.00||0.03||0.025||. . .||0.35||0.70||1.10||. . .||. . .||0.25||0.40||1.25||1.80|
3. ASTM L6 Tool Steel Mechanical Properties
Steel L6 Physical Properties
Modulus of elasticity [103 x N/mm2]: 215
Density [g/cm3]: 7.84
Thermal conductivity [W/m.K]: 36.0
Electric resistivity [Ohm mm2/m]: 0.30
Specific heat capacity[J/g.K]: 0.46
Mechanical Properties of L6 Steels
|Poisson’s ratio||0.27- 0.30||0.27- 0.30|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30457 ksi|
4. Forging of L6 Tool Steel
Forge at 1079°C (1975 F) down to 871°C (1600 F). Do not forge below 843°C (1550 F).
5. AISI L6 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
Heat steel L6 at a rate not exceeding 204°C (400°F) per hour (222°C per
hour) to 621-677°C (1150-1250°F) and equalize. Soak for 30 minutes for
the first inch (25.4 mm) of thickness, plus 15 minutes for each
additional inch (25.4 mm).
Quench L6 tool steel in oil to 66-51°C (150-125°F).
L6 steels immediately after quenching. Hold at temperature for 1 hour
per inch (25.4 mm) of thickness when tempering at 204°C (400°F), 4 hours
minimum, then air cool to ambient temperature.
However, where increased toughness is desired, at a sacrifice of some hardness, higher tempering temperatures are often used.
AISI L6 steel does not become brittle, as many other die steels do, when tempered in the range of 232°C to 426°C (450 to 800°F).
minimize the possibility of cracking, the steel should be tempered
immediately after hardening and should be heated slowly to the desired
Annealing of steel L6 must be performed after hot working and before re-hardening.
to 760°C (1400°F) and hold one hour per inch of maximum thickness. Then
cool slowly with the furnace at a rate not exceeding 28°C per hour(50°F
per hour) to 538°C (1000°F). Continue cooling to ambient temperature in
the furnace or in air.
For improved machinability, hold at 760°C
(1400°F) for 1 hour per inch (25.4mm) of maximum thickness; 2 hours
minimum. Then cool slowly with the furnace cool from 677°C (1250°F) to
760°C (1400°F), hold for 8 hours, then air cool to ambient temperature.
Because of its air-hardening ability, steel L6 should not be normalized.
6. Machinability of Steel L6
of tool steel L6 is very good. It rates 90% of the machinability of the
W-group water hardening low alloy steels rated 100% as a baseline.
7. Applications of ASTM A681 L6 Tool Steel
L6 cold working tool steel is for general purpose tools and dies where
greater toughness is required, but with some sacrifice of
Typically used below applications:
blanking and forming dies,
Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iii/solids-and-fluids/amorphous-solids.php
Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
The process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved in the fluid is often referred to as crystallization. In the old example referenced by the root meaning of the word crystal, water being cooled undergoes a phase change from liquid to solid beginning with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. The physical properties of the ice depend on the size and arrangement of the individual crystals, or grains, and the same may be said of metals solidifying from a molten state.
Which crystal structure the fluid will form depends on the chemistry of the fluid, the conditions under which it is being solidified, and also on the ambient pressure. While the cooling process usually results in the generation of a crystalline material, under certain conditions, the fluid may be frozen in a noncrystalline state. In most cases, this involves cooling the fluid so rapidly that atoms cannot travel to their lattice sites before they lose mobility. A noncrystalline material, which has no long-range order, is called an amorphous, vitreous, or glassy material. It is also often referred to as an amorphous solid, although there are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion.
Crystalline structures occur in all classes of materials, with all types of chemical bonds. Almost all metal exists in a polycrystalline state; amorphous or single-crystal metals must be produced synthetically, often with great difficulty. Ionically bonded crystals can form upon solidification of salts, either from a molten fluid or upon crystallization from a solution. Covalently bonded crystals are also very common, notable examples being diamond, silica, and graphite. Polymer materials generally will form crystalline regions, but the lengths of the molecules usually prevent complete crystallization. Weak van der Waals forces can also play a role in a crystal structure; for example, this type of bonding loosely holds together the hexagonal-patterned sheets in graphite.
Most crystalline materials have a variety of crystallographic defects. The types and structures of these defects can contain a profound effect on the properties of the materials.
An “amorphous solid” is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. (Solids in which there is long-range atomic order are called crystallines or morphous). Most classes of solid materials can be found or prepared in an amorphous form. For instance, common window glass is an amorphous solid, many polymers (such as polystyrene) are amorphous, and even foods such as cotton candy are amorphous solids.
In principle, given a sufficiently high cooling rate, any liquid can be made into an amorphous solid. Cooling reduces molecular mobility. If the cooling rate is faster than the rate at which molecules can organize into a more thermodynamically favorable crystalline state, then an amorphous solid will be formed. Because of entropy considerations, many polymers can be made amorphous solids by cooling even at slow rates. In contrast, if molecules have sufficient time to organize into a structure with two- or three-dimensional order, then a crystalline (or semi-crystalline) solid will be formed. Water is one example. Because of its small molecular size and ability to quickly rearrange, it cannot be made amorphous without resorting to specialized hyperquenching techniques.
Amorphous materials can also be produced by additives which interfere with the ability of the primary constituent to crystallize. For example, addition of soda to silicon dioxide results in window glass, and the addition of glycols to water results in a vitrified solid.
Some materials, such as metals, are difficult to prepare in an amorphous state. Unless a material has a high melting temperature (as ceramics do) or a low crystallization energy (as polymers tend to), cooling must be done extremely rapidly. As the cooling is performed, the material changes from a supercooled liquid, with properties one would expect from a liquid state material, to a solid. The temperature at which this transition occurs is called the glass transition temperature or Tg.
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