30 Years Factory AISI304| SUS304| EN1.4948 in Seattle

30 Years Factory AISI304| SUS304| EN1.4948 in Seattle

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Chemical Composition of Stainless Steel 304 Table 1. Chemical composition for 304 stainless steel alloys % 304 304L 304H C 0.0 – 0.07 0.0 – 0.03 0.04 – 0.08 Mn 0.0 – 2.0 0.0 – 2.00 0.0 – 2.0 Si 0.0 – 1.00 0.0 – 1.00 0.0 – 1.0 P 0.0 – 0.05 0.0 – 0.05 0.0 – 0.04 S 0.0 – 0.03 0.0 – 0.02 0.0 – 0.02 Cr 17.50 – 19.50 17.50 – 19.50 ...


  • Length: 3-5.8mm or Customization
  • Surface: black, peeled, or rough turned
  • Heat treatment: air-cooling, normalized, annealed, Q&T
  • Smelting process: EAF+LF+VD
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    Chemical Composition of Stainless Steel 304

    Table 1. Chemical composition for 304 stainless steel alloys

    %

    304

    304L

    304H

    C

    0.0 – 0.07

    0.0 – 0.03

    0.04 – 0.08

    Mn

    0.0 – 2.0

    0.0 – 2.00

    0.0 – 2.0

    Si

    0.0 – 1.00

    0.0 – 1.00

    0.0 – 1.0

    P

    0.0 – 0.05

    0.0 – 0.05

    0.0 – 0.04

    S

    0.0 – 0.03

    0.0 – 0.02

    0.0 – 0.02

    Cr

    17.50 – 19.50

    17.50 – 19.50

    17.00 – 19.00

    Ni

    8.00 – 10.50

    8.00 – 10.50

    8.00 – 11.00

    Fe

    Balance

    Balance

    Balance

    N

    0.0-0.11

    0.0-0.11

    0.0 – 0.10

    Properties of Stainless Steel 304

    Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 304

    Table 2a. Mechanical properties for 304 stainless steel alloys – sheet up to 8 mm thick

    Grade

    304

    304L

    304H

    Tensile Strength (MPa)

    540 – 750

    520 – 700

    -

    Proof Stress (MPa)

    230 Min

    220 Min

    -

    Elongation A50 mm

    45 Min %

    45 Min %

    -


    Table 2b. Mechanical properties for 304 stainless steel alloys – plate from 8 – 75 mm thick

    Grade

    304

    304L

    304H

    Tensile Strength (MPa)

    520 – 720

    500 – 700

    -

    Proof Stress (MPa)

    210 Min

    200 Min

    -

    Elongation A5

    45 Min %

    45 Min %

    -


    Table 2c. Mechanical properties for 304 stainless steel alloys – bar and section up to 160 mm diameter / thickness

    Grade

    304

    304L

    304H

    Tensile Strength (MPa)

    500 – 700

    500 – 700

    500 – 700

    Proof Stress (MPa)

    190

    175 Min

    185 Min

    Elongation A50 mm

    45 Min %

    45 Min %

    40 Min %

    Hardness Brinell

    215 Max HB

    215 Max HB

    -

    Physical Properties of Stainless Steel 304

    Table 3. Physical properties for 304 stainless steel alloys

    Property

    Value

    Density

    8.00 g/cm3

    Melting Point

    1450 °C

    Modulus of Elasticity

    193 GPa

    Electrical Resistivity

    0.072 x 10-6 Ω.m

    Thermal Conductivity

    16.2 W/m.K

    Thermal Expansion

    17.2 x 10-6 /K

    Alloy Designations

    Stainless steel 304 also corresponds to the following standard designations and specifications:

    Euronorm

    UNS

    BS

    En

    Grade

    1.4301

    S30400

    304S15

    304S16

    304S31

    58E

    304

    1.4306

    S30403

    304S11

    -

    304L

    1.4307

    -

    304S11

    -

    304L

    1.4311

    -

    304S11

    -

    304L

    1.4948

    S30409

    304S51

    -

    304H

    Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel 304

    Stainless steel 304
    has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments
    and when in contact with different corrosive media. Pitting and crevice
    corrosion can occur in environments containing chlorides. Stress
    corrosion cracking can occur at temperatures over 60°C.

    Heat Resistance of Stainless Steel 304

    Stainless steel 304 has
    good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service up to 870°C and in
    continuous service to 925°C. However, continuous use at 425-860°C is
    not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this
    instance 304L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide
    precipitation.

    Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500°C and up to
    800°C, grade 304H is recommended. This material will retain aqueous
    corrosion resistance.

    Fabrication of Stainless Steel 304

    Fabrication of all stainless steels should
    be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling
    and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These
    precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

    Cold Working of Stainless Steel 304

    Stainless steel 304 readily
    work hardens. Fabrication methods involving cold working may require an
    intermediate annealing stage to alleviate work hardening and avoid
    tearing or cracking. At the completion of fabrication a full annealing
    operation should be employed to reduce internal stresses and optimise
    corrosion resistance.

    Hot Working of Stainless Steel 304

    Fabrication methods, like forging, that involve hot working should
    occur after uniform heating to 1149-1260°C. The fabricated components
    should then be rapidly cooled to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.

    Heat Treatment of Stainless Steel 304

    Stainless steel 304 cannot be hardened by heat treatment.

    Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010-1120°C.

    Machinability

    Stainless steel 304 has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules:

    • Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.

    • Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.

    • Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work

    • Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat
      concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants
      are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

    Welding of Stainless Steel 304

    Fusion welding performance for Stainless steel 304 is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for stainless steel 304 is grade 308 stainless steel.
    For 304L the recommended filler is 308L. Heavy welded sections may
    require post-weld annealing. This step is not required for 304L. Grade
    321 may be used if post-weld heat treatment is not possible.

    Applications of Stainless Steel 304

    Stainless steel 304 is typically used in:

    • Sinks and splashbacks

    • Saucepans

    • Cutlery and flatware

    • Architectural panelling

    • Sanitaryware and troughs

    • Tubing

    • Brewery, dairy, food and pharmaceutical production equipment

    • Springs, nuts, bolts and screws

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    Geologists and geophysicists have agreed on the existence of a “prospect”, a potential field. In order to find out if hydrocarbons are indeed trapped in the reservoir rock, we must drill to hit them. Bearing in mind the knowledge acquired about the substratum and the topography of the land, the best position for the installation of the drilling equipment is determined. Generally it is vertically above the point of maximum thickness of the geological layer suspected of containing hydrocarbons. The drillers then make a hole in conditions that are sometimes difficult.

    Of small diameter (from 20 to 50 cm) this hole will generally go down to a depth of between 2000 and 4000 meters. Exceptionally, certain wells exceed 6000 m. One of them has even exceeded 11 000 m! Certain fields can be buried at a depth equivalent to the height of 12 Eiffel Towers … The derrick is the visible part of the drilling rig. It is a metal tower several tens of meters high. It is used to vertically introduce the drill strings down the hole. These drill strings are made up of metallic tubes screwed end to end. They transmit a rotating movement (rotary drilling) to the drilling tool (the drill bit) and help circulate a liquid called “mud” (because of its appearance) down to the bottom of the well.

    The drilling rig works like an enormous electric hand-drill of which the derrick would be the body, the drill strings the drive and the drilling tool the drill bit. The most usual tool is an assembly of three cones — from which comes the name “tri cone” — in very hard steel, which crushes the rock. Sometimes when the rock being drilled is very resistant, a single- block tool encrusted with diamonds is used. This wears down the rock by abrasion. Through the drill pipes, at the extremity of which the drill bit rotates, a special mud is injected, which the mud engineer prepares and controls. This mud cools the drill bit and consolidates the sides of the borehole. Moreover it avoids a gushing of oil, gas or water from the layer being drilled, by equilibrating the pressure.

    Finally, the mud cleans the bottom of the well. As it makes its way along the pipes, it carries the rock fragments (cuttings) to the surface. The geologist examines these cuttings to discover the characteristics of the rocks being drilled and to detect eventual shows of hydrocarbons. The cuttings, fragments of rock crushed by the drill bit, are brought back up to the surface by the mud. To obtain information on the characteristics of the rock being drilled, a core sample is taken. The drill bit is replaced by a hollow tool called a core sampler, which extracts a cylindrical sample of several meters of rock. This core supplies data on the nature of the rock, the inclination of the layers, the structure, permeability, porosity, fluid content and the fossils present. After having drilled a few hundred of meters, the explorers and drillers undertake measurements down the hole called loggings, by lowering electronic tools into the well to measure the physical parameters of the rock being drilled.

    These measures validate, or invalidate, or make more precise the hypotheses put forward earlier about the rocks and the fluids that they contain. The log engineer is responsible for the analysis of the results of the various loggings. The sides of the well are then reinforced by steel tubes screwed end to end. These tubes (called casings) are cemented into the ground. They isolate the various layers encountered. When hydrocarbons are found, and if the pressure is sufficient to allow them come to the surface naturally, the drillers do a flow check. The oil is allowed to come to the surface during several hours or several days through a calibrated hole.

    The quantity recovered is measured, as are the changes in pressure at the bottom of the well. In this way, a little more knowledge is gained about the probable productivity of the field. If the field seems promising, the exploration team ends the first discovery well and goes on to drill a second, even several others, several hundred or thousand meters further away. In this way, the exploration team is able to refine its knowledge about the characteristics of the field. The decision to stop drilling is made only when all these appraisal wells have provided sufficient information either to give up the exploration or to envisage future production.
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