12 Years manufacturer H13 Tool Steel | 1.2344 | X40CrMoV5-1 | SKD61 Hot Work Steel Manufacturer in Pretoria
H13 Tool Steel is chromium hot work tool steels which are widely used in hot and cold work tooling applications. H13 tool steel is classified as group H steels by the AISI classification system. This series of steels start from H1 to H19. AISI H-13 tool steel is characterized by: Good resistance to abrasion at both low and high temperatures High level of toughness and ductility Uniform and high level of machinability and polishability Good high-temperature strength and resistance to t...
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is chromium hot work tool steels which are widely used in hot and cold work tooling applications. is classified as group H steels by the AISI classification system. This series of steels start from H1 to H19.
AISI H-13 tool steel is characterized by:
Good resistance to abrasion at both low and high temperatures
High level of toughness and ductility
Uniform and high level of machinability and polishability
Good high-temperature strength and resistance to thermal fatigue
Excellent through-hardening properties
Very limited distortion during hardening
steel H13, the molybdenum and vanadium act as strengthening agents. The
chromium content assists die steel H-13 to resist softening when used
at high temperatures. H-13 die steels offers an excellent combination of
shock and abrasion resistance, and possesses good red hardness. It is
capable of withstanding rapid cooling and resists premature heat
checking. Tool Steel H13 has good machinability, good weldability, good
ductility, and can be formed by conventional means.
Due to H13
tool steel excellent combination of high toughness and fatigue
resistance, AISI H13 hot work tool steel is used more than any other
tool steel in tooling applications.
1. Common H13 Tool Steel Related Specifications
2. H13 Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo|
3. AISI H13 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Tensile strength, ultimate (@20°C/68°F, varies with heat treatment)||1200 – 1590 MPa||174000 – 231000 psi|
|Tensile strength, yield (@20°C/68°F, varies with heat treatment)||1000 – 1380 MPa||145000 – 200000 psi|
|Reduction of area (@20°C/68°F)||50.00%||50.00%|
|Modulus of elasticity (@20°C/68°F)||215 GPa||31200 ksi|
4. Forging of H13 Tool Steel
Heating for forging must be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at
1900°-2000°F and reheat as often as necessary, stopping work when the
temperature drops below 1650°F. After forging, cool slowly in lime,
mica, dry ashes or furnace. H-13 should always be annealed after
5. Heat Treatment for H13 Tool Steels
slowly to 1550°-1650°F, hold until entire mass is heated through, and
cool slowly in the furnace (40F per hour) to about 1000°F, after which
cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to
prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat slowly to
1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain
Preheat Prior to Hardening
Warm slightly before charging into the preheat furnace, which should be operating at 1400°-1500°F.
tool steel is a steel having very high hardenability and should be
hardened by cooling in still air. The use of a salt bath or controlled
atmosphere furnace is desirable to minimize decarburization, and if not
available, pack hardening in spent pitch coke is suggested. The
temperature employed is usually 1800°-1850°F, depending on size section.
in still air or dry air blast. If complicated forms are to be hardened,
an interrupted oil quench can be used. Quench part in oil and remove
from bath when it just loses its color (1000°-1100°F). Finish cooling to
below 150°-125°F in air, then temper immediately.
practice may vary with size and application, but is usually performed
in the range of maximum secondary hardness or higher. Double tempering
is recommended. The results below is H13 that was air quenched from
1800°F and tempered for 4 hours at various temperatures. The results may
be used as a guide, keeping in mind that parts of heavy section or mass
may be several points lower in hardness.
6. Application of AISI H13 Tool Steel
As Tools for Extrusion
|Part||Aluminium, magnesium alloys, HRC||Copper alloys HRC||Stainless steel HRC|
|Dies, Backers, die-holders, liners, dummy blocks, stems||44-50||43-47||45-50|
As Plastic Molding Tool Steel
|Injection molds Compression/ transfer molds||1,870-1,885°F (1,020-1,030°C)||50-52|
|Tempering 480°F (250°C)|
|Severe cold punching, scrap shears||1,870-1,885°F||50-52|
|Tempering 480°F (250°C)|
|Tempering 480°F (250°C) or|
|Shrink rings (e.g. for cemented carbide dies)||1,870-1,885°F||45-50|
|Tempering 1,070°F (575°C)|
there are any queries about AISI H13 tool steel for hot working
applications, please feel free to leave a comment below. And welcome
enquiry of AISI H13 tool steel, we are professional and reliable
supplier for prime H13 tool steel materials.
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Geologists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs. The “classic” method includes making an underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures under the ground. However, “passive” methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also known.
The oil well is created by drilling a long hole into the earth with an oil rig. A steel pipe (casing) is placed in the hole, to provide structural integrity to the newly drilled well bore. Holes are then made in the base of the well to enable oil to pass into the bore.Finally a collection of valves called a “Christmas Tree” is fitted to the top, the valves regulate pressures and control flow.
During the primary recovery stage, reservoir drive comes from a number of natural mechanisms. These include: natural water displacing oil downward into the well, expansion of the natural gas at the top of the reservoir, expansion of gas initially dissolved in the crude oil, and gravity drainage resulting from the movement of oil within the reservoir from the upper to the lower parts where the wells are located. Recovery factor during the primary recovery stage is typically 5-15%.
While the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient to force the oil to the surface, all that is necessary is to place a complex arrangement of valves (the Christmas tree) on the well head to connect the well to a pipeline network for storage and processing. Sometimes pumps, such as beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), are used to bring the oil to the surface; these are known as artificial lift mechanisms.
Over the lifetime of the well the pressure will fall, and at some point there will be insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface. After natural reservoir drive diminishes, secondary recovery methods are applied. They rely on the supply of external energy into the reservoir in the form of injecting fluids to increase reservoir pressure, hence replacing or increasing the natural reservoir drive with an artificial drive. Secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir’s pressure by water injection, natural gas reinjection and gas lift, which injects air, carbon dioxide or some other gas into the bottom of an active well, reducing the overall density of fluid in the wellbore. Typical recovery factor from water-flood operations is about 30%, depending on the properties of oil and the characteristics of the reservoir rock. On average, the recovery factor after primary and secondary oil recovery operations is between 35 and 45%.
The amount of oil that is recoverable is determined by a number of factors including the permeability of the rocks, the strength of natural drives (the gas present, pressure from adjacent water or gravity), and the viscosity of the oil. When the reservoir rocks are “tight” such as shale, oil generally cannot flow through but when they are permeable such as in sandstone, oil flows freely. The flow of oil is often helped by natural pressures surrounding the reservoir rocks including natural gas that may be dissolved in the oil (Gas oil ratio), natural gas present above the oil, water below the oil and the strength of gravity. Oils tend to span a large range of viscosity from liquids as light as gasoline to heavy as tar. The lightest forms tend to result in higher extraction rates.
Petroleum engineering is the discipline responsible for evaluating which well locations and recovery mechanisms are appropriate for a reservoir and for estimating recovery rates and oil reserves prior to actual extraction.