11 Years Manufacturer ASTM 52100 Bearing Steel | 1.3505 | 100Cr6 | SUJ2 | EN31 Manufacturer in Monaco
ASTM A295 is specification which covers 52100 high carbon bearing quality steelto be used in the manufacture of anti-friction bearings. And 52100 bearing steel is the most common steel grade in ASTM A295 standard for high-carbon anti-friction bearing steel. What is 52100 bearing steel? AISI/ASTM 52100 bearing steel is a high carbon, chromium containing low alloysteel that is through hardening and noted in particular for use asbearings. 52100 bearing steel is one kind of special steel with ...
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is specification which covers 52100 high carbon bearing quality steel
to be used in the manufacture of anti-friction bearings. And is the most common steel grade in ASTM A295 standard for high-carbon anti-friction bearing steel.
What is 52100 bearing steel?
52100 bearing steel is a high carbon, chromium containing low alloy
steel that is through hardening and noted in particular for use as
52100 bearing steel is one kind of special steel with features of
high wear resistance and rolling fatigue strength. High-carbon chromium
bearing steel, engineering steel and some types of stainless steel and
heat resistant steel are used as materials of bearings and for other
Advantages of Chrome Bearing Steel 52100:
Superior hardness, 60-67 on Rockwell hardness scale (Rc) at room temperature
High carbon chrome alloy steel
Operates continually at temperatures up to 120°C
Used to produce precision ball bearings and roller bearings
Long working life
1. Relevant Steel Specification of ASTM 52100 Bearing Steel
|Standard||ASTM A295||DIN 17230|
2. Chemical Composition of 52100 Bearing Steel and Equivalents
3. Mechanical Properties of ASTM A295 52100 Bearing Steel
|Bulk modulus (typical for steel)||140 GPa||20300 ksi|
|Shear modulus (typical for steel)||80 GPa||11600 ksi|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30458 ksi|
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||875||875|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in oil from 150°C tempered)||62||62|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in water from 150°C tempered)||64||64|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in oil)||64||64|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in water)||66||66|
|Hardness, Vickers (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||848||848|
|Machinability (spheroidized annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212 steel)||40||40|
52100 Steel Physical Properties
|Density||7.81 g/cm3||0.282 lb/in³|
52100 Alloy Steel Thermal Properties
|Thermal expansion co-efficient (@ 23-280°C/73.4- 36°F, annealed)||11.9 µm/m°C||6.61 µin/in°F|
|Thermal conductivity (typical steel)||46.6 W/mK||323 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
4. Forging of A295 52100 Bearing Steel
52100 alloy steel is forged at 927 to 1205°C, and should not be forged
below 925ºC. A post-forge equalization treatment is recommended at 745ºC
for 4-6 hours followed by air cooling for SAE/AISI 52100 steel.
6. Heat Treatment for ASTM 52100 Bearing Steel
52100 alloy bearing steel is heated at 816°C followed by quenching in
oil. Before performing this process, it is subjected to normalizing heat
treatment at 872°C followed by slowly cooling in order to reduce the
AISI 52100 bearing steels alloy can be hot worked at 205 to 538°C.
AISI 52100 bearing steel can be cold worked using conventional techniques in the annealed or normalized conditions.
For spheroidize anneale, the following isothermal anneal is recommended:
1500ºF (815ºC) for 3 hours
1350ºF (735ºC) for 4 hours
1250ºF (675ºC) for 3 hours
Slow cool to 1000ºF (540ºC) then air cool.
AISI 52100 alloy bearing steel could be hardened by quenching in water from 801-829 degree or quench in oil from 816-842 degree.
Temper to desired hardness as indicated by tempering curves after water or oil quench.
5. Applications of 52100 Bearing Steel
steel 52100 grade bearing steel is mainly used for the manufacture of
aircraft bearings and other highly stressed parts. This steel grade
52100 steel is preferably vacuum arc re-melted to give optimum
Typical applications: Bearing Manufacture, CV joints, ball screws, gauges, knife etc.
Excitonic States in Crystalline Organic Semiconductors:
A Condensed Matter Approach
Lane W. Manning
Advisor: Dr. Madalina Furis
Doctor of Philosophy
With increased interest in organic semiconducting systems for many varied research and commercial applications, crystalline thin films of small molecules present an intriguing system for both fundamental and applied studies of electronic properties and exchange interactions in the larger field of organic electronics. Their optical, transport and magnetic properties belong to an intermediate regime where well-established models fail to fully describe the electronic behavior and do not accurately predict the experimental observations.
With this in mind, the nature of the dynamics of diffusion and delocalization of excitons (or electron-hole pairs) becomes a necessity for understanding and eventually controlling the behavior of these materials in organic electronic applications. Furthermore, the processing method, purity, and crystalline quality of the films themselves can also greatly impact exciton behavior. Novel solution-processing deposition techniques in tandem with chemical synthesis design of small molecule soluble derivatives represent a viable avenue for exploring these excitons using organic analogues of semiconductor alloyed systems, where excitonic properties could be tunable through alloy concentration.
In this work, a new condensed matter approach to the study of excitons based crystalline thin films of the organic molecule phthalocyanine (Pc) is introduced. The premise is inspired by a wealth of studies in inorganic semiconductor ternary alloys (such as AlGaN, InGaN, SiGe) where tuning compositional disorder can result in exciton localization by alloy potential fluctuations. Comprehensive absorption, luminescence, linear dichroism and electron radiative lifetime studies were performed on both pure and alloy samples of metal-free octabutoxy-phthalocyanine (H2OBPc) and transition metal octabutoxy-phthalocyanines (MOBPc), where M = Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu. Varying the ratios of the metal to metal-free OBPcs in all of these studies, as well as looking across a temperature range from 4 Kelvin up to room temperature is essential for quantifying the exciton wavefunction delocalization in crystalline thin films. Furthermore, a comparative study is performed across organic aromatic ringed molecules of different sizes in the same family: phthalocyanine, naphthalocyanine (NOBPc) and tetra-phenyl porphyrin (TPP). In an analogy to nanocrystals and their size effects, variations in π-conjugated ring sizes imply an altering in the number of delocalized electrons, impacting the wavefunction overlap between π-π orbitals along the perpendicular axis of neighboring molecules. Finally, complementary measurements that assess crystallinity of the in-house deposited thin films, including individual grain absorption, small angle x-ray scattering images, polarized microscope images and a new unique LD microscopy dual imagingluminescence technique are also discussed.
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