10% OFF Price For D2 Tool Steel | 1.2379 | X153CrMo12 | SKD11 Factory in Thailand
1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications Country USA German Japan Standard ASTM A681 DIN EN ISO 4957 JIS G4404 Grades D2 1.2379/X153CrMo12 SKD11 2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition ASTM A681 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo D2 1.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.6 11 13 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.2 DIN ISO 4957 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo 1.2379/X153CrMo12 1.45 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.15 1.6 11 13 0.7 1 0.7 1 JIS G4404 C Mn P S Si Cr V Mo SKD11 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.4 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 3. AISI Grade...
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1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications
|Standard||ASTM A681||DIN EN ISO 4957||JIS G4404|
2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|DIN ISO 4957||C||Mn||P||S||Si||Cr||V||Mo|
3. AISI Grade D2 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness)||769||769|
|Hardness, Rockwell C||62||62|
|Izod impact unnotched||77.0 J||56.8 ft-lb|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30457 ksi|
|Thermal expansion||10.4 x 10-6/ºC||20-100||
4. AISI/ASTM A681 D2 Grade Steel Forging
Heating for forging of AISI D2 tool steel should
be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at 1850°-1950°F and reheat as often
as necessary, stopping work when the temperature drops below 1700°F(926℃). After D2
die steel forging, cool slowly in lime, mica, dry ashes or furnace. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.
5. D2 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
ASTM D2 steels alloy should be preheated very slowly to 815oC (1500oF) and then temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850oF). They are then held at 1010oC (1850oF) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air quenched).
Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898oC (1600 to 1650oF) followed by slow furnace cooling at 4.4oC (40oF) per hour or less.after which cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
When desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat D2 grade steel slowly to 1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain Relieving).
Preheat Prior To Hardening
Preheat slowly to 1350°-1450°F and hold at this temperature until grade steel D2 material is uniformly heated.
After thorough preheating, heat to 1800°-1850°F. Hold the work piece at the hardening temperature until it is completely and uniformly heated.
AISI D2 steel tool material is an air hardening steel and will develop hardness on cooling in still air. To avoid scaling and prevent decarburization of the work piece surface, controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are recommended. If these furnaces are not available, pack hardening, salt baths or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection in the hardening process. Parts should be allowed to cool to 150F, or to where they can be held in the bare hand, and then temper immediately.
The tempering temperature on material D2 steel may be varied according to the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204oC (400oF) for achieving Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537oC (1000oF) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.
6. D2 Tool Steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long run tooling applications, where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies.
Some main applications for D2 tool steel are as below:
Blanking Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Forming Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Drawing Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Burnishing Tools, Gauges, Knurls, Wear Parts.
We usually hold D2 tool steel on sale activities, and you would have our price on regular schedule. Contact us and sign in our newsletter to have D2 tool steel materials price list and commercial quote today.
Ever wondered how ball bearings are made?
Today on How It’s Made, ball bearings, electrical wires, wax casting and automated machines. With the entire high end couplet these days, the lowly ball bearing gets forgotten but many machines needs ball bearings to rotate. Household appliances, industrial machines and car engine parts, alternator and fans. This is what’s called a deep groove radio ball bearing. It has steel balls that move inside tracks called raceways. The raceways are carved into a set of heavy-duty rings. The balls were made from the same type of steel. They first prepare the shape of the rings to the right thickness. They insert the inner ring to the outer ring. The set passes through a grinder that alters width to the correct thickness. A gauge checks the width of each ring as it exit.
Now they separate the inner and the outer rings in order to grind their outer circumference on separate machines. The outer rings enter the grinder which shapes its outer surface to a precise roundness and diameter. A water-based liquid keeps the outer rings from overheating which would cause warping. The ring exits the grinder from a gauge that checks the diameter. Next the outer rings go for grinding. A brace of steel wheels and oil cog shapes the surface to a precisely correct roundness and size. The inner ring and raceways goes through a similar machine. Now the ring goes for polishing and a brace of stone lubricates with oil polishes the steel until you see a reflection. Next stop is washing. They coat the rings with thick oil and a fine stone grid. They clean the raceways with kerosene. Elsewhere in the planet they classify the steel balls according to size.
These balls started out as steel wire. Machine cuts them into pieces and a then punches them into steel balls. Those rough balls go into the grinder which removes the bumps then other machine round them up and give them a mirror finish. This entire process takes a few days. The balls go through a furnace where they are hardened. Then they get a bath and cleaning solvent. After several quality checks, the finished balls goes into hoppers. The hoppers load them into an automatic assembly machine. The ball fitter sends the balls through tubes to a ball pusher that fix the correct quantity of balls into the raceways of the now re-assembled inner and outer rings. Next comes the ball cage, a metal cage that retains the balls in position around the raceways.
The first machine installs half of the cage. The half drives holes. The next machine carefully positions the outer half of the cage. The half with rivets. The machine test spins the bearings then rivets the two halves the ball cage together. The bearing is now fully assembled. Now it goes to a solvent bath then to a series of automated quality control tests. This noise vibration tests makes sure the ball bearing operates quietly. Some types of bearings are lubricated with grease. A machine squirts evenly into the ball bearings then inserts a rubber seal after the grease. A final quality control test, an automated scale tosses out bumped bearings that aren’t the required weight. The good ones move to the laser which marks them with information such as the part number and the trademark.
For more details and questions about ball bearings, you may contact Bearing Shop UK at +44 843 289 4606 or e-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org. We are located at Unit 13 Neptune Close, Medway City Ind. Est, Rochester, ME2 4LT. BearingShop is part of a large bearing distribution company that has been trading for the past 20 years. We strive to provide an excellent service to all our customers no matter how big or small.
The Authors@Google program welcomed David Chang, chef and owner of Momofuku Noodle Bar, Ssam Bar, Ko, and Bakery & Milk Bar to Google’s New York office to discuss his first book, “Momofuku”.
“David Chang has been honored with many awards, including Food & Wine’s Best Chef 2006, Bon Appettit’s Best Chef of the Year 2007, one of GQ’s Men of the Year 2007, and James Beard Awards for Rising Star Chef 2007 and Best Chef New York City 2008.”
This event tool place on November 16, 2009.